windows_unicode_filenames.patch (24.7 KB)
I'd like to contribute a patch to HDF5, and this appears to be the
appropriate place to send it to. If I am mistaken, I'd appreciate a
pointer where to go instead. (It would be great if the website could
have some prominent information about how to contribute to HDF5. Also, I
couldn't find it, does HDF5 have a version control repository, such as
Git or SVN?)
Windows has two different representations of filenames: 8-bit
fixed-width "ANSI" and 16-bit "Unicode" (effectively UTF-16). The 8-bit
representation depends on the locale settings of the computer; the lower
128 values correspond to ASCII, while the upper 128 values depend on the
locale settings of the computer; in Germany, for example, code page 1252
is typically used. (Very similar, but not identical to ISO-8859-1.)
When using standardized C / POSIX functions as HDF5 does (open, fopen,
etc.), which accept 8-bit strings, they will always assume the local
8-bit encoding. The problem is that the local 8-bit will never be able
to encode all possible filenames that the operating system supports, as
a fixed 8-bit encoding will never be able to encode all Unicode
characters. Furthermore, in some languages there are so many characters
that any fixed 8-bit encoding will never be able to represent all of them.
This in turn means that on Windows systems it is possible to have HDF5
fail to open a file if the file name (or the directory that contains it)
contains characters that are not representable in the local 8-bit
encoding of the system. For example, on a typical US Windows
installation it is not possible to use HDF5 to store files with names
that contain e.g. Japanese characters, even though the operating system
itself does support these.
To actually access all possible files Microsoft offers alternatives to
the standard functions that accept UTF-16 filenames in form of wchar_t
strings. There is _wopen() instead of open(), and _wfopen() instead of
(For reference: other operating systems, such as Linux and Mac OS X,
always represent filenames as 8-bit strings; the operating system often
does not care about the precise encoding and leaves it up to the
software itself (though in practice this most likely will be UTF-8
nowadays), which means that the standard 8-bit APIs can always be used
to access any file on disk.)
Example consequences of this problem: GUI application, user chooses a
file from a "File Open" dialog, file name is converted appropriately and
passed to HDF5, HDF5 cannot load the file (that the user chose in the
same application) because the file (or a directory containing it)
contains characters that can't be represented in the local code page.
The most obvious solution would be to simply provide additional
functions in HDF5 that also accept wchar_t filenames on Windows systems.
However, HDF5 has a large number of methods that simply pass through
file names (or maybe even manipulate them a bit) and this would lead to
a huge duplication of existing code, which I don't believe is a good
idea for the long-term maintenance of HDF5.
An alternative suggestion (see e.g. ) would be to always assume on
Windows systems that the filename supplied is encoded in UTF-8 (which,
due to being variable-length, can represent all possible characters) and
convert it to UTF-16 before passing it to the wide functions (_wopen,
_wfopen) directly. This has the advantage that now all filenames can be
represented. However this has the huge disadvantage that most software
does not expect HDF5 to accept UTF-8-encoded file names, and if a
program converts a string that it got from a "File Open" dialog into the
local 8bit codepage (as many programs would do now), any character in
the local code page beyond ASCII would cease to work (as UTF-8 encodes
them differently). For example, since the German umlauts Ä, Ö, Ü can be
represented in the local codepage, file names with these characters can
actually be opened on Windows systems with HDF5 at the moment (when
using German locale settings, at least), and this change would break
existing programs if it were to be added to HDF5 itself unconditionally.
I'd like to propose the following solution instead. It is based on the
UTF-8 encoding idea, but keeps compatibility with existing software.
- Default behavior: HDF5 behaves as it currently does and calls the
standard "ANSI" open(), fopen(), etc. functions. It will hence
continue to work with characters in the local code page.
- Add a boolean to the file access property list that may be used to
indicate that the file name is in UTF-8 on Windows systems (the
boolean will be ignored on all other operating systems):
- Update the filesystem drivers to check for this flag, and if it
is set to actually do a conversion from UTF-8 to UTF-16 and then
call the corresponding wide functions.
The advantage is that current code doesn't break, but users who want to
properly support Windows can actually do so, they just need to ensure
they encode their filenames in UTF-8. The other main advantage is that
the patch is not very invasive.
I've attached (against 1.10.1) that implements this. The following is
- Property list flag accessors:
- SEC2/Windows driver
- Core driver
- stdio driver
I've successfully tested this in the following constellation on a
Windows 10 system with German locale (using MinGW-w64/gcc7.2.0 as the
- Flag not set, files with Umlauts, calling HDF5 with the file names
encoded in the current codepage. (Compatibility check for existing
- Flag set, lots of different test cases (file names in pure ASCII,
German Umlauts, Japanese characters, Hebrew characters, Arabic
characters), calling HDF5 with the file names encoded in UTF-8
and the flag set in the FAPL before calling the HDF5 functions.
I tested all three drivers (SEC2, Core, stdio) in both cases.
I also tested that the patch doesn't break on Linux (Debian 9, gcc
7.2.0, 64bit x86) to ensure that the patches don't harm non-Windows
What should work, but I haven't tested it:
- The FAMILY driver, as that just passes through the FAPL to the
underlying driver, and since UTF-8 is ASCII-compatible, any
manipulation done in the driver should be safe as well.
What I believe doesn't make sense to implement:
- The direct I/O driver. It appears to contain some Windows code, but
the CMake build system will never build it on Windows, so I left
that out. If that is wrong and the direct I/O driver should work on
Windows, I'll be happy to update the patch.
What I didn't implement yet:
- C++, Fortran and Java wrappers for the FAPL flag getters/setters
- External File Lists (EFL) support (H5Defl.c)
- HDF5 plugin libraries (H5PL.c)
- Logging driver (H5FDlog.c)
- Cache logging (H5Clog.c)
Feedback is appreciated, and it would be fantastic if this could be
included in a future version of HDF5. I would be willing to help out
with the missing pieces. I do think that those can be added
incrementally, and the current patch already improves the state of
affairs on Windows quite a bit.
For the avoidance of doubt: my employer agrees to license these changes
under the same license that HDF5 1.10.1 is licensed under.